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25 June 2022, Volume 44 Issue 3
Research on Classification of Scientific Instruments and Technologies in The Commerce Control List of US Export Control
CHEN Fang WANG Xuezhao LIU Xiwen WANG Yanpeng WUMing
2022, 44(3):  287-298. 
doi:10.16507/j.issn.1006-6055.2021.07.002
Abstract ( 404 PDF (1530KB)
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Under the background of China-US trade embargo, a series of external technical threats are increasingly prominent in China, which affects a variety of fields such as economics, military, politics etc. Developed countries, led by the United States, restrict the export of key core technologies to China through Export Control. The commerce control list (CCL) issued by the United States contains export restrictions on a large number of technologies, equipment and products, including important scientific instruments and their related parts. This paper compares the contents of the CCL with the classification of domestic scientific instruments, taking the commercial control list as object text, and taking the classification of scientific instruments in China as standards. Through text mining and clustering, the analysis of the technology of export control list is carried out. Then, the distribution of the control situation of the United States in each type of scientific instrument and technology is analyzed. It is found that 42.08% of the list items are related to the control of scientific instruments, suggesting serious situation for the field of scientific instruments in China. Among the 12 categories of scientific instruments, Analytical Instruments, Process Experimental Equipments, Electronic Measuring Instruments, etc. are subject to a wide range of control. Medical Diagnostic Instruments, Atmospheric Detection Instruments are controlled slightly. On the basis of the analysis, this paper puts forward some suggestions for the development of scientific instruments in China.
Experience and Enlightenment R&D Project Management for Advanced Scientific Instrumentin Japan
XU Yuxia LI Tao HUANG Yichun WEN Xiaoyun QIU Gang LIU Yi WANG Chunming HUANG Dan ZHU Lin
2022, 44(3):  299-313. 
doi:10.16507/j.issn.1006-6055.2022.05.008
Abstract ( 6 PDF (1971KB)
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Taking “science and technology to create a country” as the starting point, and to get rid of its dependence on foreign advanced scientific instruments, the Japanese government has formulated the Development of Advanced Measurement and Analysis Systems, laying a solid research and development foundation for Japanese science and technology. Taking the plan as the research object, this paper makes an in-depth analysis on its introduction background, management structure, field distribution, fund investment and implementation effect using case analysis method, bibliometric method and social network analysis method. By comparing the management process of the natural science foundation of China, it is found that China's national-level scientific research project planning and inter-departmental scientific research projects are far behind those of Japan., as well as the efforts in the combination of production, education and research and the commercialization of scientific research results. Combined with the national conditions in China, suggestions are put forward, including to strengthen the top-level design of scientific instruments, increase funding, promote the research and development of key core technologies, optimize the project evaluation system, promote industry-university-research cooperation, and the transformation of scientific and technological achievements to promote the high-quality development of advanced scientific instruments in China.
Analysis and Countermeasures of Import Dependence of Scientific Instruments of China
HAN Fengqin CHEN Yaping
2022, 44(3):  314-321. 
doi:10.16507/j.issn.1006-6055.2022.04.002
Abstract ( 56 PDF (1042KB)
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Scientific research instruments are the material resources necessary for scientific research, and the primary basis and necessary prerequisite for the realization of scientific and technological self-reliance and self-improvement. China has been pouring heavy investment annually to purchase foreign scientific instruments and equipment, and almost all advanced precision instruments are imported. This paper discusses the influence of the import dependence of scientific research instruments on scientific research undertakings, analyzes the main reasons for the import dependence of scientific research instruments in China from the perspective of environment, and puts forward corresponding countermeasures and suggestions. It is found that there is a certain degree of import dependence of scientific research instruments in China, and the main reason is the lack of localization environment, including four aspects: talent environment, policy environment, market environment and cultural environment. In this regard, it is recommended that China should speed up the deployment of the talent strategy for scientific research instrument development, build a basic institutional system that encourages independent research and development of scientific research instruments, build a national supply and demand docking platform for scientific research instruments, and strive to create a cultural environment for the localization of scientific research instruments for R&D.
Research and Enlightenment of Risk Management of Major Scientific & Technological Infrastructure in Department of Energy of the United States
CHEN Juan LI Zexia FAN Xiaoxiao YANG Chunxia LI Yue YANG Guangpu
2022, 44(3):  322-331. 
doi:10.16507/j.issn.1006-6055.2021.08.009
Abstract ( 75 PDF (1220KB)
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The “new infrastructure” has brought new opportunities for the development of major scientific & technological infrastructure. However, many unexpected situations will emerge amid rapid development. Therefore, systematic management and mechanism guarantees are urgent and necessary. As a key point of management of major scientific & technological infrastructure, risk management should be further strengthened and valued. This paper first lists some major scientific and technological risk events of research infrastructure, and analyzes the scientific, technical, economic and environmental impacts of these risk events. Then, this paper studies the risk management procedures and key processes of major scientific and technological infrastructure in the Department of Energy of the United States, including specific methods and measures adopted in risk planning, risk identification, risk analysis, and risk treatment. Based on current status of risk management of major scientific and technological infrastructure in China, several proposals are made, including establishing a risk management system that meets the characteristics of major scientific and technological infrastructure, comprehensively researching and identifying different types of risks and deploying in advance, strengthening process management, real time monitoring and adjusting risks and its dealing method, and carrying out facility construction management assessment, and regarding risk management as an important consideration.
Experience and Enlightenment of EU Large Scientific Research Infrastructure Funding Management
PAN Xinxin
2022, 44(3):  332-341. 
doi:10.16507/j.issn.1006-6055.2022.05.001
Abstract ( 3 PDF (1022KB)
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Sound and effective investment mechanism and fund management measures are the key contents to improve the input-output efficiency of large scientific research infrastructure. In this regards, EU takes large scientific research infrastructure as a strategic scientific and technological resource to support R&D development. EU strengthens investment in large scientific research infrastructure through governmental funds and joint investment, and mobilizes the resources of Member States to build a resource sharing network. Meanwhile, the funding model of “Public Construction with Private Operation” and “Cost and Risk Sharing” has been established, which helps to resolve the risks in investment and construction. Besides, EU has established a mature funding system in supporting the capitalization cost, operation cost and transnational access cost of large scientific research infrastructure in combination with the whole life cycle. The sound and effective investment mechanism provides excellent financial guarantee for the construction, operation and use of large infrastructure. In addition, the EU has formed a mature funding management system, established a fair and reliable funding review and prior evaluation methods, and determined a scientific and economic cost accounting method, which has effectively improved the input-output efficiency of large scientific research infrastructure funding. The EU experience has significance reference for promoting the construction and operation of large scientific devices. In combination with China’s reality, it is suggested to expand and coordinate the investment channels of China’s large scientific research infrastructure, improve the cost accounting methods, and increase the support for the operation, maintenance and use of facilities, so as to improve the social and economic benefits of the construction and operation of China’s large scientific research infrastructure, and ultimately enhance the “hard power” of science, technology and innovation in China.
Research on the Development Trend of Collider Technology Based on Bibliometrics and Topic Models
LI Huadong YI Huifang LIU Xiwen
2022, 44(3):  342-353. 
doi:10.16507/j.issn.1006-6055.2021.12.007
Abstract ( 36 PDF (1878KB)
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In order to fully grasp the technical composition and development tendency of the collider, this paper analyzes the patents and papers related to the collider technology in the past 30 years. The statistics on the annual, national, and institutional distributions of the patents and paper are presented firstly. Then, this study uses the Context-LDA model and LDA topic models to study the topic compositions and hot topics of patents and papers respectively. Further, by using similarity index (JS distance) and information entropy, this study analyzes the topic evolution of papers. The results show that Japan and the United States are the countries with the highest amount of patents and papers respectively. China ranks in the forefront and the output of achievements has increased rapidly in recent years; electrode circuits of accelerated system, beam injection, superconducting devices, vacuum systems, radio frequency chambers, etc., are the most popular topics of the patents. The technical topics of papers related to the Large Hadron Collider have been hot topics at different times. Among them, the hot topics include magnets and solenoids, trace systems, beam cavities, superconducting magnets, calorimeters, etc.. Research topics in the field of collider technology are developing towards a more balanced and diversified trend. This paper recommends that China continues to increase the number of output in this field, increases the research and development (R&D) efforts of hot technology fields; scientific research institutions should seek R&D cooperation with superior enterprises, or promote the integrated development of production, education and research, and speed up the research to determine the construction of a large-scale collider.
Current Development of Domestic Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry
ZOU Xue ZHANG Qiangling LIANG Qu LU Yan XIA Lei LIU Yawei HUANG Chaoqun SHEN Chengyin CHU Yannan
2022, 44(3):  354-370. 
doi:10.16507/j.issn.1006-6055.2022.05.007
Abstract ( 7 PDF (1500KB)
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Proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) is a rapid and sensitive technique for the detection of volatile organic compounds. Since its completion in 2008, domestic PTR-MS has reached the international advanced level in some technology and application fields. In this paper, we firstly introduced the principle of the instrument, and expounded the main influencing factors in the process of ionization, transmission and detection of the object to be measured. Then we showed the main products of domestic PTR-MS, including proton extraction reaction mass spectrometer (PER-MS), dipolar proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (DP-PTR-MS), breath tester, spray inlet mass spectrometer (SI-PTR-MS), mobile proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (M-PTR-MS), fast gas chromatography proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (FGC-PTR-MS). Some products have been mass produced and sold. In terms of technological development, important progress has been made in the improvement of sensitivity and the preparation of multi reactive ions. Finally, we introduced the application of domestic PTR-MS in the fields of environment, medicine and safety, such as tracing the source of air pollution, excavating disease markers in human exhalation, rapid detection of explosives and soon. At the same time, the future development direction and application prospect of domestic PTR-MS were prospected.
Development and Prospect of Small Angle Neutron Scattering Instrument
HAN Zehua ZUO Taisen MA Changli LI Yuqing CHENG He
2022, 44(3):  371-391. 
doi:10.16507/j.issn.1006-6055.2022.06.002
Abstract ( 5 PDF (1769KB)
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Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) is a coherent elastic scattering technique. It uses neutron as the probe to characterize the microscopic and mesoscopic structures of materials. SANS has been widely used in the fields of physics, chemistry, material science, biology and so on. At the early stage, SANS used pinhole geometry to collimate the neutron beam, and measured the length scales from 1 nm to 100 nm. With the increase in the neutron flux and the development of the neutron optics and detection technologies, SANS gradually develops into two directions, i.e., larger length scale, and smaller length scale, respectively. To detect larger length scale, Very Small Angle Neutron Scattering (VSANS), Ultra Small Angle Neutron Scattering (USANS) and Spin Echo Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SESANS) are developed; to detect smaller length scale, Neutron Total Scattering instrument for Disordered Macromolecules is developed. Nowadays, SANS is aiming at full-scale coverage and intelligent data analysis, hoping to measure the multi-scale structures of complex systems at one time. This article follows the development history of SANS technologies, explores its development direction and intersperses its role in the field of basic and applied scientific research.
Development and Application of Ultrafast Transmission Electron Microscope
HUANG Siyuan TIAN Huanfang ZHENG Dingguo LI Zhongwen ZHU Chunhui YANG Huaixin LI Jianqi
2022, 44(3):  392-411. 
doi:10.16507/j.issn.1006-6055.2021.05.006
Abstract ( 206 PDF (3113KB)
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Ultrafast Transmission Electron Microscopy (UTEM) integrates high spatial and temporal resolution, making it possible to directly visualize the dynamic processes of materials. This paper mainly introduces the development and application of UTEM system, including: the basic principle of UTEM system based on pump-probe technology; the current UTEM systems in several major institutions around the world; the first generation UTEM system based on thermal emission electron gun and the second generation UTEM system based on field emission electron gun (FEG) independently developed by Li Jianqi's team from Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences; the latest research achievements in UTEM system combined with ultrafast real space imaging, ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) and time-resolved electron energy loss spectrum (TREELS), such as lattice and electron dynamics, phase transition dynamics, photon-induced near-field electron microscopy (PINEM), etc. At present, UTEM has become a powerful tool for the study of non-equilibrium dynamics at micro-nano scale. In the future, as electron pulse quality and spatial resolution of TEM continue to improve, UTEM is expected to achieve higher spatial and temporal resolution. China has invested relatively less in the research of UTEM. At present, it is necessary to seize the development opportunity of UTEM, effectively promote the innovation and industrial development of key technologies, core components and major products in the field of UTEM, and closely link scientific and technological innovation with industrial development.
Development and Application of Neutron Chopperat CSNS
WANG Ping CAI Weiliang ZHANG Qing GENG Yansheng ZHANG Wenxiang WANG Fangwei GUO Juan WANG Shanshan ZHANG Hong YANG Bo ZHOU Liang CAI Zeyin
2022, 44(3):  412-420. 
doi:10.16507/j.issn.1006-6055.2022.06.001
Abstract ( 4 PDF (4190KB)
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The China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS), including 20 distinctive time-of-flight neutron scattering spectrometers, is a major scientific platform for China’s neutron scattering research and a national scientific device constructed during the 12th Five-Year Plan of China. The neutron chopper is a neutron optical component that regulates the beam current on the scale of time, thereby being an indispensable part in a neutron scattering spectrometer. Its main functions are selecting the desired neutron band range and improving the signal-to-noise ratio. The CSNS needs approximately 73 sets of neutron choppers, which would require regular operation and maintenance. In order to avoid the import restriction of such critical instrument and ensure the success of the Big Scientific Engineering Construction, the CSNS formed a team for neutron chopper development in 2007, which overcame various key technological difficulties, successfully developed bandwidth limited chopper, T0 chopper and Fermi chopper in time, and realized the domestic production of neutron choppers with independent intellectual property rights. 9 sets, 27 sets and 37 sets of these neutron choppers have been or will be applied in the CSNS’s Phase I Project, Cooperative Spectrometer Project, and the future Phase II Project, respectively. The independently developed neutron choppers provided an important guarantee for the smooth construction of the CSNS. Their use is not restricted to China spallation neutron source projects, but can be extended to synchrotron radiation light source (X-ray chopper) projects, high-speed rotation mechanical equipments and other fields.
Target Micro Deformation Meter and Its Applicationon High-Speed Railway Bridge
GAO Zhuoyan JIA Yan LIU Shuyi ZHANG Xiangkun
2022, 44(3):  421-427. 
doi:10.16507/j.issn.1006-6055.2021.09.005
Abstract ( 44 PDF (1596KB)
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Micro-deformation are important in engineering to determine the health state of a target or to warn of natural disasters. Traditional deformation monitoring methods include displacement meter, accelerometer, GPS, 3D laser scanning, etc. However, they have certain disadvantages, such as installation difficulties, low working efficiency and weather sensitivity. Therefore, a solid target micro deformation Meter (TMDM) is designed. The system combines the frequency modulation continuous wave technology (FMCW) and interferometry, which is easy to operate, portable, and can operate all day long. Firstly, the system is tested in laboratory, and the accuracy of deformation measurement is verified to be up to sub-millimeter. Then, the system is used to carry out a micro-deformation monitoring experiment on a 32m double-line simply supported box girder of Haian Bridge. During the experiment, four typical monitoring points are selected. Under the experimental condition of single line loading and the same loading speeds of the girder, the system accurately measured the displacement of 1/4 span and 1/2 span of the beam and the displacement difference of 1/2 span of the uplink and downlink. The natural frequency and forced frequency of the bridge are obtained by further analysis of the measured time-history curve. The measured results are consistent with the theoretical analysis, proving the effectiveness of the TMDM.
Analysis of the Development Status of Semiconductor Photoresist Based on Patents
CAO Yan LI Linshan MAO Yilei ZHANG Rui
2022, 44(3):  428-441. 
doi:10.16507/j.issn.1006-6055.2021.12.004
Abstract ( 58 PDF (1937KB)
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Based on semiconductor photoresist patents in 126 countries collected by Patsnap database, the global patent application quantity, application trend, legal status, area distribution, main patent applicants and technique distribution are analyzed, and patents related to the semiconductor photoresist in the past 50 years are analyzed. Moreover, this paper recognizes the key technique of this area by analyzing the patents of TOP 10 foreign patent applicants. It is concluded that the global patent activity of semiconductor photoresist could be divided into four stages, and the changing trend of Chinese patent applications is basically the same as that of the whole world. However, the development of China in this field started relatively late and the total number of patent applications is lower than that of developed countries such as the United States, Japan and South Korea. The United States, Japan and South Korea occupy leading positions in the field of semiconductor photoresist, and Japan has mastered the technique in this field and has been in a monopoly position for a long time. China, comparatively, is still in the development stage. The key technique of representative foreign companies in semiconductor photoresist field is mainly focused on the design of photoresist composition and the design and optimization of synthesis process.
Research on Development Trend of Scientific Research Cooperation between China and Central and Eastern European Countries
GAO Yang SONG Zhengxi TIAN Wei LI Yun
2022, 44(3):  442-453. 
doi:10.16507/j.issn.1006-6055.2022.03.003
Abstract ( 5 PDF (1113KB)
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Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC) is a major gateway in the implementation of the Belt and Road Initiative in Europe. Scientific research cooperation has become an important part of China-CEEC cooperation. In order to provide referential basis for improving the level of China-CEEC scientific research cooperation, based on the data of China-CEEC co-authorship papers in InCites database from 2011 to 2020, using the methods of bibliometrics and data statistics, this paper analyzes the number, cooperative countries, cooperative disciplines and cooperative institutions of China-CEEC co-authorship papers. The development trend of China-CEEC scientific research cooperation from 2011 to 2020 is revealed, and suggestions for further deepening cooperation are provided. The results show that China-CEEC scientific research cooperation presents the following characteristics. 1) The scale has grown steadily, but the cooperative degree among CEEC countries has significant differences, presenting an echelon distribution with Poland ranks first. 2) The cooperative disciplines are mainly science disciplines. Among the seven main cooperative disciplines, there are four science disciplines, two medical disciplines and one engineering discipline. There is a high degree of similarity in cooperative disciplines among CEEC countries. Physics and Astronomy are the main cooperative disciplines. Five disciplines, including Clinical Medicine, Chemistry, Materials Science and Engineering, Biology and Basic Medicine, are hot cooperative disciplines. 3) The main cooperative institutions are concentrated in universities and institutes with strong scientific research strength in China and CEEC, mainly in universities. The cooperation among Chinese institutions is not balanced. The top five cooperative institutions in China are Tsinghua University, Peking University, Institute of High Energy Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences and University of Science and Technology of China. It is suggested to strengthen and expand the scale of China-CEEC scientific research cooperation, pay attention to complementary advantages and expand the cooperative disciplines of China-CEEC scientific research cooperation, and strengthen coordinated development and improve the participation of various Chinese institutions in China-CEEC scientific research cooperation.