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25 October 2022, Volume 44 Issue 5
Analysis and Enlightenment of Hydrogen Development Strategy of World's Major Economies
WANG Chao SUN Fuquan XU Ye DING Minglei HUANG Ning
2022, 44(5):  596-604. 
doi:10.16507/j.issn.1006-6055.2022.04.005
Abstract ( 125 PDF (1312KB)
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The hydrogen industry has unique industry coupling attributes, making it an important cornerstone of energy transformation in the process of global carbon neutrality, and an important technical path for reducing emissions in industries with high carbon emissions and difficult to decarbonize such as industry and transportation. In the context of addressing global climate change, the world's major economies have released mid- and long-term development strategies for the hydrogen industry. This paper focuses on the comparative analysis of the mid- and long-term development strategies of the hydrogen industry recently released by the United States, the European Union, Germany, Japan and South Korea. The relevant conclusions include: improving hydrogen production capacity has become the main line of hydrogen development in various countries, but there are differences in hydrogen production paths; the development path of hydrogen industry in various countries has clear stage characteristics, and each country has its own development direction; technological innovation covers the entire hydrogen industry chain; cross-field cooperation promotes the implementation of hydrogen strategy; hydrogen international trade cooperation accelerates development. On this basis, combined with the development status of China's hydrogen industry, five suggestions are put forward for the development of China's hydrogen industry: deepening the implementation of China's hydrogen technology strategy; systematically deploying technology research and promotion and application in the entire hydrogen industry chain; continuing to expand hydrogen industry development vision; systematically promoting the hydrogen system integration strategy; paying close attention to the progress of hydrogen international financial trade.
Analysis of Low-carbon Agriculture Action in Major Developed Economies under the Background of Carbon Peaking and Carbon Neutrality Strategies
XIE Hualing CHI Peijuan YANG Yanping
2022, 44(5):  605-617. 
doi:10.16507/j.issn.1006-6055.2022.01.003
Abstract ( 127 PDF (1120KB)
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Agriculture is not only an important sector of the national economy, but also an important carbon-source and carbon-sink. As a carbon-sink, agriculture has the ability to compensate for the inevitable carbon emissions of itself and other sectors. The core of low-carbon agriculture is to promote the overall green transformation of agricultural development. Promoting and expanding the practices of low-carbon agriculture is the best ways to achieve the reduction goal of carbon-emission, and deal with the climate crisis. This paper focuses on the analysis of low-carbon agriculture related actions of the EU, the United States and Japan from the dimensions of action background, development objectives and technology paths, as well as relevant support systems and expected effects. It is found that the low-carbon agriculture related actions have strong inheritance in these developed countries: 1)the EU mainly advocates nature based solutions to promote the realization of various green goals in Europe by decoupling economic growth from resource consumption; 2)the United States focuses on building climate-smart agroforestry, while meeting there quirements of improving productivity, enhancing the ability of agriculture to cope with climate change and reducin genvironmental load; 3)Japan emphasizes the decarbonization of agricultural through digital, smart, biological and other technological innovation, while at the same time improve and ensure Japan's food self-sufficiency ratio and domestic production rates. Among them, the EU mainly through restricting the use of certain agricultural inputs, expanding the area of organic farming and other measures to achieve development goals; the United States achieves the development goals mainly by technological innovation; and Japan combines the technical characteristics of the EU and the United States. The core of low-carbon agriculture in the above three economies is to strengthen the management of agricultural green house gas emission and storage through perfect policy support system, appropriate operation and management mode and advanced emission reduction and carbon fixation technology. There is still a big gap between China and countries with high level of low-carbon agriculture, including slow progress in the development of new plants and animals varieties for adaptation and mitigation of climate change, insufficient substitution of clean energy for agricultural production, and continued high greenhouse gas emissions caused by food loss and waste. China should strengthen its planning and layout in such areas as policy planning, scientific and technological support and international cooperation, so as to build China's low-carbon agricultural industry as early as possible and help China achieve its goal of carbon peak and carbon neutrality.
Development and Top-level Thinking of Hypersonic Weapon Defense Equipment System
LIU Sitong ZHANG Zhanyue LIU Da YANG Shuai
2022, 44(5):  618-630. 
doi:10.16507/j.issn.1006-6055.2022.02.002
Abstract ( 115 PDF (1202KB)
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Hypersonic weapon has the unique advantages of strong mobility, fast response speed, wide coverage and strong penetration ability. Its amazing combat effectiveness in the field of military application makes it gradually become a new strategic commanding point for the air and space competition of powerful countries and the focus of the strategic game of powerful countries. In order to pursue space safety and maintain strategic balance, countries are competing to carry out research on the construction of superb defense system, especially the construction of equipment system. Through extensive data collection, the situation and development trend of hypersonic weapon defense equipment system construction in the United States, Russia and other military powers are summarized. The hypersonic defense equipment system structure of the US is gradually clear, and it is accelerating the development of hypersonic defense technologies that support equipment capabilities. Russia is promoting the test and deployment of a new generation of aerospace defense systems, and has made significant progress in anti-hypersonic weapon systems. On this basis, through the analysis of the current situation and threats, suggestions and top-level thoughts on the construction of hypersonic weapon defense equipment system are putting forward from three aspects: building an early warning and detection network with three-dimensional coverage in the whole-area, avarious interception and strike network in the whole process, and a all-factor interconnection and efficient command and communication network.
Analysis of Domestic and International Development Trend of Quantum Computing Industrialization
WANG Jingjing YANG Hong LEI Gen ZHANG Chi
2022, 44(5):  631-642. 
doi:10.16507/j.issn.1006-6055.2022.03.005
Abstract ( 160 PDF (1351KB)
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With the breakthrough and development of quantum computing technology theory, quantum computing is moving from laboratory to industrialization. How to seize the opportunity of quantum computing industrialization and actively respond to the challenges in the process of quantum computing industrialization has become a major scientific and technological problem urgently to be solved in China. This paper first summarized the state-of-the-art quantum industry home and abroad, and introduced the prototype of the industrial chain which consists of quantum chip, basic software and application service. Secondly, the development trend and challenges of quantum computing industrialization were analyzed. The industry has a good momentum of development and is of great potential, but there are still problems such as unclear business pattern and industry irregularity. Finally, in view of the shortcomings of the development of China's quantum computing industry, relevant suggestions and countermeasures are put forward: 1) strengthen national overall planning to provide institutional guarantees for industrial development; 2) learn from advanced foreign experience and improve relevant cooperation mechanism; 3) fully focus on the industry economy and create a complete ecosystem; 4) strengthen research on core devices and key technologies; 5) correct publicity and education, and be vigilant the emergence of industrial bubbles.
InternationalResearchTrendAnalysisofSingle-atom Catalysis
LIU Jiacheng MA Tingcan
2022, 44(5):  643-653. 
doi:10.16507/j.issn.1006-6055.2022.02.001
Abstract ( 105 PDF (2012KB)
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The paper took the Web of Science core collection SCI-E database as the paper data source, and used the Derwent data analyzer and the scientific knowledge mapping software VOSviewer and Gephi to conduct a bibliometric analysis on the relevant papers in the field of single-atom catalysis. The paper found that related papers in the field of single-atom catalysis continue to grow. The content of the papers not only involve the basic theoretical research of single-atom catalysis, but also have begun to involve its application research. China is at the top level in the field of single-atom catalysis internationally. The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tsinghua University, and the U.S. Department of Energy laboratories are the three institutions with the largest number of publications in the field of single-atom catalysis. The Universities of science and technology have obvious advantages in the field of single-atom catalysis. The researchers have a close cooperation relationships, which have formed research teams with a certain scale. The research topics can be divided into 4 specific research directions including the type and the performance of single-atom catalysts, the applications of single-atom catalysts, the supports and characterization techniques of single-atom catalysts and the theoretical calculation methods of single-atom catalysts. Finally, the paper summarized the analysis results and looked forward to the development prospects and challenges in the field of single-atom catalysis, in order to play a positive role in promoting the research in the field of single-atom catalysis. 
Bibliometric Analysis of International Research on Wetland in 2006-2020
ZHAO Wanyu SUN Yuling LV Lucheng TIAN Qianning
2022, 44(5):  654-667. 
doi:10.16507/j.issn.1006-6055.2021.11.006
Abstract ( 105 PDF (2185KB)
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Wetlands are one of the most biodiversity-rich ecological landscapes and have been called the “Kidneys of the Earth” and “City’s green lung”. Researches and practices in the field of wetland have been a hotspot of international attention for many scholars in recent years. In order to have a comprehensive understanding of the research progress and development trend in the field of wetland, this paper employed the Web of Science core collection database (SCIE and SSCI), together with the analysis tools self-provided by WoS, Derwent Data Analyzer and topic clustering model kmeans, to conduct bibliometric analysis of literatures on wetland. The data were retrieved from the literatures published during the period of the past fifteen years (2006-2020). The analysis dimensions included trends in the number of articles published, countries/regions, institutions, citations, research hotspots, etc. The results showed that from 2006 to 2020, the annual number of publications in the field of wetlands worldwide exhibited a steady increase, and the number of citations was high; the top three countries in terms of the number of publications were the United States, China and the United Kingdom, with the United States far exceeding other countries in terms of the number of publications, accounting for about 20%. Major contributing institutions include Chinese Academy of Sciences, U.S. Geological Survey, University of Florida, Louisiana State University, and Sun Yat-sen University. Through the clustering analysis of the titles and abstracts of the wetland literature in the past fifteen years, it is found that the research hotspots and research directions mainly focus on 14 areas, including artificial wetlands, biodiversity, carbon cycle and carbon stock changes, ecological response of wetlands, biogeochemical processes, ecohydrological processes, wetland management, species richness, species invasion, microbiological research, wetland pollution and restoration, geological evolution of wetlands, mangrove species composition and community characteristics, as well as classification and evaluation of wetland geological surveys.
The Development Trend and Suggestions of Clinical Mass Spectrometry
SHI Huilin XU Li XU Ping WANG Yue
2022, 44(5):  668-677. 
doi:10.16507/j.issn.1006-6055.2022.03.004
Abstract ( 65 PDF (1061KB)
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Through measuring ion mass-to-charge ratio, mass spectrometry technology accurately identifies unknown analytes, quantifies known compounds, and determines the structure and chemical properties of molecules. In recent years, its application in life science basic research and clinical detection analysis has become more and more extensive, providing important support for understanding the composition of life and the essence of life phenomena, and realizing rapid and accurate diagnosis of diseases. This article analyzes the development status and problems of international and Chinese clinical mass spectrometry technology, and puts forward relevant policy recommendations. It shows that technological advances in ion sources and mass analyzers, as well as the introduction of innovative ion mobility spectroscopy technology, have improved the sensitivity and resolution of mass spectrometry, broadened the range of detectable molecules, and significantly improved the qualitative and quantitative capabilities of mass spectrometry, which make the clinical application of mass spectrometry technology enter a stage of rapid development. Chinese clinical mass spectrometry technology research and application started relatively late, and it is necessary to further strengthen the independent innovation of source technology, promote the sinking of clinical applications, and gradually improve related regulatory standards in the future.
Research on the Structure and Evolution of Patent Cooperation Network in China's Intelligent Connected Vehicle Industry
HE Peiyu LIU Yanwen
2022, 44(5):  678-690. 
doi:10.16507/j.issn.1006-6055.2022.03.002
Abstract ( 81 PDF (3067KB)
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Taking China's intelligent connected vehicle industry as the research object, based on the intelligent connected vehicle industry cooperation application for invention patent data from 1985 to 2021, using social network analysis method to build a patent cooperation network, from the network density, average length, centrality and other indicators to intelligent network Measure and analyze the evolution of the patent cooperation network of intelligent connected vehicle industry. The research found that: the overall innovation efficiency of China’s intelligent connected vehicle industry patent cooperation network is not high, there is no large core group, and the cooperation is relatively loose; the scale of patent cooperation network continues to expand, but the network density continues to decline, and the patent cooperation between innovative entities There is still a lot of room for development; innovative entities such as Tsinghua University, the Institute of Automation of Shandong Academy of Sciences, Chongqing Jiaotong University, and Toyota Motor are in key positions of information flow in the network; the patent layout in key technical fields is relatively small. In this regard, it is recommended that the government formulate guiding policies to encourage industrial research and development; encourage innovative entities to expand the breadth and depth of cooperation; give full play to the key and core role of universities in there search and development process of cooperation, and optimize the mode of industry-university-research cooperation; strengthen the
layout of key technologies such as cloud platform big data to jointly promote the development of the intelligent connected vehicle industry.
Theory and Applications of Transient Processes in Ecology: Progress and Prospects
WANG Yanfeng HUANG Yuanyang WU Shengjun LIU Ying MA Maohua ZHAO Gang
2022, 44(5):  691-704. 
doi:10.16507/j.issn.1006-6055.2021.09.008
Abstract ( 126 PDF (1208KB)
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Ecosystem process has always been one of the core issues of ecology and evolutionary ecology, and the theoretical basis of ecological restoration. Much of the understanding of ecological systems has been based on the idea that the observed states and dynamics of ecological systems can be represented by stable asymptotic behavior. The dynamic processes including tipping points and a seemingly stable period of temporary changes before reaching a tipping point, which are called transient dynamics. As a self-organized process, transient dynamics is often extended by random events, external or internal disturbances. In this review, the characteristics of transient dynamic, measurement indicators, models and ecological significance were summarized. The results showed that the current transient phenomenon focused on the population scale based on the matrix model between the regime shifts. Taking riparian zone as an example, this review provides valuable information on using the transient theory to explain complex ecosystem affected by multiple factors and put forward a new perspective to reveal the transient dynamic and its ecological significance. The transient dynamic model can be used to predict the tipping points of system self-organization and the process before it comes. The research based on transient dynamic can provide new insights of the ecosystem process management and take measures to intervene the imbalance of the ecosystem.
Characteristics and Enlightenment of DARPA's Deployment of Disruptive Technologies in Major Infectious Diseases
ZHU Shu YIN Zhixin
2022, 44(5):  705-715. 
doi:10.16507/j.issn.1006-6055.2022.06.003
Abstract ( 47 PDF (1152KB)
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Preventing pandemic and defending against biological threats is one of the priorities of U.S. defense security. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) continues to deploy disruptive technology research and development to deal with major infectious diseases in the future. This paper takes the relevant projects deployed by DARPA in the field of major infectious diseases from 2011 to 2020 as the research object, combs the project objectives, project investment and the main disruptive technologies involved, and then analyzes the characteristics of DARPA’s deployment of disruptive technologies in this field. The study found that DARPA deployed a variety of disruptive technologies in the field of infectious diseases, such as gene editing, RNA vaccine, neutralizing antibody, detection of trace pathogens in the environment and so on. Since 2016, DARPA has significantly increased the number of projects deployed in this field and paid more attention to the early prevention and control of major infectious diseases; focuses on prevention, and a total of 9 projects have been set up in diagnosis and prevention; It is committed to investing in the early stage of basic research and technology development in the field of infectious diseases, and accelerating and expanding the application of engineering and Information Science in the biological field. In this regard, some suggestions are put forward, including: increasing the deployment and investment of key technologies in the field of major infectious diseases; Strengthen the identification, prediction and collaborative deployment of disruptive technologies; Strengthen the monitoring and defense against the threat of large-scale bioterrorism; Promote the transfer of dual-use technologies and strengthen the management and monitoring of dual-use technologies.
Species Safety Risks of Modern Biotechnology and Its Governance Measures
ZENG Haiyan PENG Yuzhao
2022, 44(5):  716-725. 
doi:10.16507/j.issn.1006-6055.2022.08.003
Abstract ( 33 PDF (1117KB)
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Species safety risks brought by the development of modern biotechnology have become an essential topic for urgent consideration in national biosecurity. Species diversity risk, species quality risk, species habitat risk, and risk from alien species invasion are crucial representations of species safety risks of modern biotechnology. The limited scientific cognition ability, the negative values caused by technological alienation, and the limitation of STI risk governance ability are the important causes of species safety risks. In order to strengthen species safety risk management and promote the healthy development of modern biotechnology, the “government-science community-civil society” should form a flexible governance model with equal interaction and democratic consultation among multiple actors. Specifically, the government should clarify the leading position of governance, improve the national species safety strategy, relevant laws and institutional systems and inter-ministerial coordination mechanism to enhance the risk governance capacity; the scientific community should actively assume social responsibility, promote the Scientific Spirit, adhere to Responsible Innovation and improve the institutionalized consultation and dialogue mechanism to enhance the voice; civil society should actively participate in STI governance process through strengthening the support of non-governmental organizations, effectively playing the role of the media, and safeguarding and exercising public rights in order to exert the role of monitoring and feedback.
The Construction of Megascience Facilities in Russia: Progress, Characteristics and Inspiration
HUA Dun FAN Weiwei JIA Xiaoqi QI Zilong
2022, 44(5):  726-737. 
doi:10.16507/j.issn.1006-6055.2022.07.002
Abstract ( 49 PDF (1983KB)
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Abstract: Large scale scientific facilities are an important symbol of the country's scientific and technological innovation capability and comprehensive strength, economic strength and even soft power. As the largest target country of technological and economic sanctions by Western countries, its experience in the construction of large-scale scientific facilities have practical significance. This paper clarifies the concept of the Russian Megascience facilities, sorting out its policy evolution, examines its construction process and latest progress, and summarizes the characteristics of Russian Megascience facilities in terms of projects, goals, management and factors. There are only 7 Megascience facilities defined in Russia in a narrow sense. They are projects with international comparative advantages selected under the scientific management system of Russia's mandatory plan. The situation at home and abroad is highly sensitive. China should build a benign international cooperation mechanism with independent research and development as the main line, build a sustainable large-scale scientific development ecology, and strike a balance between accumulating resources to build large scale scientific facilities and expanding scientific and technological undertakings.