世界科技研究与发展 ›› 2022, Vol. 44 ›› Issue (3): 371-391.doi: 10.16507/j.issn.1006-6055.2022.06.002

• 科研仪器与设施专题刊 • 上一篇    下一篇

小角中子散射谱仪技术的发展及未来展望

韩泽华1,2 左太森1,2 马长利1,2 李雨晴1,2,3 程贺1,2   

  1. 1.中国科学院高能物理研究所中国散裂中子源,东莞523803;2.中国散裂中子源科学中心,东莞523803;3.中国科学院大学,北京100049
  • 出版日期:2022-06-25 发布日期:2022-07-04
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金“自旋回波极化中子分析新方法的研究”“由物理凝胶化到吸引性玻璃态:玻璃化转变动力学路径的研究”“中子全散射方法在大分子共混互溶与共混不互溶体系中的应用”(U1830205,21674020,11805035),国家自然基金大科学装置联合基金“大分子表面水合壳层结构的中子全散射研究”(U1932161),广东省科技厅微小角中子散射谱仪项目

Development and Prospect of Small Angle Neutron Scattering Instrument

HAN Zehua1,2   ZUO Taisen1,2   MA Changli1,2   LI Yuqing1,2,3   CHENG He1,2   

  1. 1. Institute of High Energy Physics, China Spallation Neutron Source, Dongguan 523800, China; 2. China Spallation Source Research Center, Dongguan 523800, China; 3. University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049, China
  • Online:2022-06-25 Published:2022-07-04

摘要:

小角中子散射以中子作为探针,通过弹性相干散射,表征物质微观、介观结构,在物理、化学、材料和生物等多个学科领域有着广泛应用。最早的小角中子散射谱仪采用针孔几何进行中子束线准直,测量尺度在1~100纳米;随着中子源通量的增加、中子光学和探测技术的发展,小角中子散射技术逐渐向更大和更小尺度两个方向发展。在更大尺度方向,发展了微小角、超小角和自旋回波中子散射技术;在更小尺度方向,发展了无序大分子中子全散射技术。为了能够一次性表征多尺度复杂体系结构,小角中子散射技术正在向着全尺度覆盖、智能化数据分析的方向发展。本文依循小角中子散射技术和相应的中子谱仪在国内外的发展历程,梳理了不同技术的特点和应用范围,进而展望了这一技术的发展方向,期间穿插概述了相关技术在基础和应用科学研究领域的作用。

关键词: 小角中子散射, 微小角中子散射, 超小角中子散射, 自旋回波小角中子散射, 无序大分子中子全散射

Abstract:

Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) is a coherent elastic scattering technique. It uses neutron as the probe to characterize the microscopic and mesoscopic structures of materials. SANS has been widely used in the fields of physics, chemistry, material science, biology and so on. At the early stage, SANS used pinhole geometry to collimate the neutron beam, and measured the length scales from 1 nm to 100 nm. With the increase in the neutron flux and the development of the neutron optics and detection technologies, SANS gradually develops into two directions, i.e., larger length scale, and smaller length scale, respectively. To detect larger length scale, Very Small Angle Neutron Scattering (VSANS), Ultra Small Angle Neutron Scattering (USANS) and Spin Echo Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SESANS) are developed; to detect smaller length scale, Neutron Total Scattering instrument for Disordered Macromolecules is developed. Nowadays, SANS is aiming at full-scale coverage and intelligent data analysis, hoping to measure the multi-scale structures of complex systems at one time. This article follows the development history of SANS technologies, explores its development direction and intersperses its role in the field of basic and applied scientific research.

Key words: Small Angle Neutron Scattering, Very Small Angle Neutron Scattering, Ultra-Small Angle Neutron Scattering, Spin-echo Small Angle Neutron Scattering, Neutron Total Scattering for Disordered Macromolecules