世界科技研究与发展 ›› 2022, Vol. 44 ›› Issue (3): 332-341.doi: 10.16507/j.issn.1006-6055.2022.05.001

• 科研仪器与设施专题刊 • 上一篇    下一篇

欧盟大型科研基础设施资助管理的经验与启示

潘昕昕   

  1. 科学技术部科技经费监管服务中心,北京100038
  • 出版日期:2022-06-25 发布日期:2022-07-04

Experience and Enlightenment of EU Large Scientific Research Infrastructure Funding Management

PAN Xinxin   

  1. Supervision Service Center for Science and Technology Funds, Ministry of Science and Technology, Beijing 100038, China
  • Online:2022-06-25 Published:2022-07-04

摘要:

科学完善的投入保障机制和资金管理措施是提升大型科研基础设施投入产出效率的关键。欧盟将大型科研基础设施作为支撑区域科技发展的战略资源,以政府资助为主导,多渠道共同投入和调动成员国资源的方式来加强大型科研基础设施建设和运行方面的投入;建立“公建民营”“成本和风险共担”的资助模式,分散化解投资建设中的风险;经过多年实践,结合设施建设运行全生命周期各阶段的不同特征,通过对资本化成本、运营成本和跨国访问成本三类成本进行全面支持,为设施建设、运营和使用提供充分的资金保障;同时,形成了一套成熟的资助管理制度,通过可靠的资助审核和事先评估机制以及科学的成本核算方法,有效提升投入产出效率。建议借鉴欧盟大型科研基础设施资助管理的有关经验和做法,结合我国实际,拓展和统筹我国大型科研基础设施投入渠道,完善成本核算方法,加大对设施运行维护和使用方面资金支持力度,进而提升我国大型科研基础设施建设运行的社会经济效益,增强我国科技创新的“硬实力”。

关键词: 大型科研基础设施, 资本化成本, 运营成本, 运行维护

Abstract:

Sound and effective investment mechanism and fund management measures are the key contents to improve the input-output efficiency of large scientific research infrastructure. In this regards, EU takes large scientific research infrastructure as a strategic scientific and technological resource to support R&D development. EU strengthens investment in large scientific research infrastructure through governmental funds and joint investment, and mobilizes the resources of Member States to build a resource sharing network. Meanwhile, the funding model of “Public Construction with Private Operation” and “Cost and Risk Sharing” has been established, which helps to resolve the risks in investment and construction. Besides, EU has established a mature funding system in supporting the capitalization cost, operation cost and transnational access cost of large scientific research infrastructure in combination with the whole life cycle. The sound and effective investment mechanism provides excellent financial guarantee for the construction, operation and use of large infrastructure. In addition, the EU has formed a mature funding management system, established a fair and reliable funding review and prior evaluation methods, and determined a scientific and economic cost accounting method, which has effectively improved the input-output efficiency of large scientific research infrastructure funding. The EU experience has significance reference for promoting the construction and operation of large scientific devices. In combination with China’s reality, it is suggested to expand and coordinate the investment channels of China’s large scientific research infrastructure, improve the cost accounting methods, and increase the support for the operation, maintenance and use of facilities, so as to improve the social and economic benefits of the construction and operation of China’s large scientific research infrastructure, and ultimately enhance the “hard power” of science, technology and innovation in China.

Key words: Large Scientific Research Infrastructure, Capitalized Costs, Operating Costs, Operation and Maintenance