世界科技研究与发展 ›› 2022, Vol. 44 ›› Issue (3): 287-298.doi: 10.16507/j.issn.1006-6055.2021.07.002

• 科研仪器与设施专题刊 • 上一篇    下一篇

美国出口管制科学仪器技术分类研究

陈芳1 王学昭1,2 刘细文1,2 王燕鹏1 吴鸣1,2   

  1. 1.中国科学院文献情报中心,北京100190;2.中国科学院大学经济与管理学院图书情报与档案管理系,北京100190
  • 出版日期:2022-06-25 发布日期:2022-07-04
  • 基金资助:
    国家科技图书文献中心(NSTL)专项基金“面向政府部门的科技管理决策咨询研究服务-美国出口管制中的科学仪器技术研究子课题”(E01Z0413),中国科学院战略专项“美国出口管制清单解析与挖掘”(E1290409)

Research on Classification of Scientific Instruments and Technologies in The Commerce Control List of US Export Control

CHEN Fang1   WANG Xuezhao1,2   LIU Xiwen1,2   WANG Yanpeng1   WUMing1,2   

  1. 1. Library of Chinese academy of Science, Beijing 100190, China; 2. Department of library, Information and Archives Management, School of Economics and Management, University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190, China
  • Online:2022-06-25 Published:2022-07-04

摘要: 在中美贸易冲突的背景下,美国为首的发达国家以立法形式限制关键核心技术向我国出口,美国出台的《商业管制清单》等文件包含了大量对技术、设备和产品的出口限制,涉及重要的科学仪器及其相关的零部件。本文以美国“两用”物品的商业管制清单(The Commerce Control List,CCL)为分析对象,以中国科学仪器分类为标准,将CCL中的内容与国内科学仪器的分类进行对比。通过对CCL的计量分析,揭示发现中国科学仪器领域相关技术受美国管制的形势非常严峻,有42.08%的清单条款涉及对科学仪器的管制。在十二个科学仪器的分类中,分析仪器、工艺实验设备、电子测量仪器等是受管制范围较广的领域,激光器、核仪器是传统受到管制的领域,医学诊断仪器、大气探测仪器等受管制范围较小。在分析的基础上为我国科学仪器的发展提出了分类应对、坚定走自主研发道路等建议。

关键词: 出口管制, 商业管制清单, 科学仪器, 文本挖掘, 自然语言处理

Abstract:

Under the background of China-US trade embargo, a series of external technical threats are increasingly prominent in China, which affects a variety of fields such as economics, military, politics etc. Developed countries, led by the United States, restrict the export of key core technologies to China through Export Control. The commerce control list (CCL) issued by the United States contains export restrictions on a large number of technologies, equipment and products, including important scientific instruments and their related parts. This paper compares the contents of the CCL with the classification of domestic scientific instruments, taking the commercial control list as object text, and taking the classification of scientific instruments in China as standards. Through text mining and clustering, the analysis of the technology of export control list is carried out. Then, the distribution of the control situation of the United States in each type of scientific instrument and technology is analyzed. It is found that 42.08% of the list items are related to the control of scientific instruments, suggesting serious situation for the field of scientific instruments in China. Among the 12 categories of scientific instruments, Analytical Instruments, Process Experimental Equipments, Electronic Measuring Instruments, etc. are subject to a wide range of control. Medical Diagnostic Instruments, Atmospheric Detection Instruments are controlled slightly. On the basis of the analysis, this paper puts forward some suggestions for the development of scientific instruments in China.

Key words: Export Control, Commercial Control List, Scientific Instruments, Text Mining, Natural Language Processing